Melanocytes cells in our Skin produce melanin which is responsible for the color of the skin. Whenever these cells are irritated they produce more melanin causing hyperpigmentation.
Freckles are generally inherited and exposure to the sun darkens them.
Sun spots or age spots as they are sometimes called are caused by overexposure to the sun.
Melasma is common, especially in women of Asian origin. It appears on the upper lip, nose and chin area and sometimes on the forehead and cheeks.
Melasma may be caused by genetics, some medications, oral contraception, pregnancy and nutritional deficiency.
Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation is the result of an injury to the skin, e.g. Cuts, Acne lesions, Aggressive peeling, Sunburn and insect bites.
Some Medications may cause the skin to hyperpigment, e.g. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) sulfonamides and barbiturates.
Dark Circles under the eyes may be inherited or caused by excessive rubbing which irritates the delicate skin.
Most of the time the dark circles under the eyes are the blood vessels that can be seen through the surface of the skin.
Treatment options for HyperpigmentationMicrodermabrasion and Chemical peels. These treatments are most beneficial when combined with topical products.
Some of the topical treatments are products containing one or more of the following AHAs, Azelaic acid, Hydroquinone, Retinol, Kojic acid, Vitamin A,C, E and Salicylic acid. Most women prefer using Retinoids because it helps reduce hyperpigmentation and wrinkles.
Skin lightening products can be applied for 3 months and then give your skin a break for a couple of months. In some women over use of skin lightening products causes them to hypopigment (loss of color).
At home remedies include exfoliating your skin twice a week with a soft exfoliating brush or cleanser with microbeads to help remove dead skin from the surface. Try the masks in the Home Remedy section to help reduce the dark spots and blemishes.
Sunscreen is the most important product that should be a part of your daily regimen. It helps prevent and reduce hyperpigmentation, UV light from the sun damages collagen and darkens pigmentation.